In order to produce scratchproof eyesight, scratch-resistant eyeglasses, and crack-resistant paints. They also have anti-graffiti and transparent coatings that protect against ultraviolet radiation.
Nanoparticles as fillers in tyres can improve adhesion to the road, reducing the stopping distance in wet conditions. The stiffness of the car body can be improved by use of nanoparticle-strengthened steels. New sol-gel deposition methods make it possible to apply, economically, nanometre thick antireflection layers of silicon dioxide or other materials onto displays or panes. Ultra-thin transparent layers on a silver base can be used for heatable, and therefore mist and ice-free, window panes. Transparent and light materials could substitute car body parts that reduce all-round vision at the moment.
This nanotechnology is applicable to food manufacturing, food safety, food packaging and processing. The nanotechnology could be applied to improve mechanical and heat-resistance, reduce oxygen transmission rate and detect biochemical changes in foods.
Salata (2004) also reviewed that nanomaterials have been used in medicine, biology, and other fields. There are products to provide drug delivery or gene therapy. Also, there is the possibility of using nanomaterials as imaging contrast agents.
Practical applications within the science and technology field
Material science has already seen nanocomposites made with nanoscaled dispersed materials and nanocrystalline substances, in which their fine grain size affords very different mechanical property to other microstructures. Biosciences have made significant advances in targeting drug development and target design through fundamental research on molecular molecular mechanisms and molecular functional units at the nanometer scale. A variety of devices and nanoscale functionalized entities have been developed to aid in analytical instrumentation and applications in medicine and biology.
These breakthroughs in nanoscience will have the biggest impact in electronic, opto-optic and optical device applications. The transition from semiconductor(conventional and organic) technology to nanoscale devices have projected improved properties and resolution, fluorescence labeling, scanning probe Microscopy and confocal Microscopy. These data storage devices are small, fast, and less expensive because they use nanostructures.
A greater understanding at the micrometer scale of disease is possible in medicine. Functionalized nanostructures can be used to deliver drugs, which may improve pharmacokinetics or targeting.
Functional nanoscale materials, as well functional surfaces, are widely used in consumer products. This includes cosmetics and sunscreens. Fibers and textiles include dyes, pigments, fillers, paints, and emulsions.
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