Procedures to prepare MAX Phase Materials
MAX phases materials can have many preparation techniques. The synthesis process can vary depending on what morphology the material has. MAX Phase materials can be described as massive, finely powdery or thin film.
Production of MAX-phase bulk materials
For bulk MAX Phase materials, chemical vacuum deposition (CVD), is the first method of preparing this material. CVD technology involves higher synthesis temperatures, lower production cost, and lower production efficiency. Hot isostatic sintering technology emerged later. Pampuch et al. The bulk Ti3SiC2 can be prepared by hot isostatic pushing sintering. Although the production time is significantly shorter, the impurities (primarily TiC), are easily generated in the manufacturing process. Also, the purity isn’t high. Until 1996, Barsoum et al. High purity Ti3SiC2 has been prepared by hot pressing. Spark plasma sintering, which is a method of increasing production efficiency, has again been developed. Although the sintering process works similarly to hot-pressing, there is a reduced need for raw materials.
The industrial scale production of pressureless sintering works better than traditional methods. Mechanical alloying pretreatment is often used before pressureless-sintering. However, there are many impurities with this method. Sun et.al. Al was added by pressureless-sintering which increased the material’s density.
The preparation of MAX powder phase materials
Powdered MAX materials were prepared using oxidation. Later research revealed that the solid liquid reaction method was more practical.
A oxidation reactions is the first method to prepare powdery MAX material. Later research revealed that the solid liquid reaction method was more appropriate.
Racault et al. Racault et.al., who had studied the powder MAX phases earlier, put T powder, Si and C powders with a specific molar ratio inside a vacuum silicone tube. Then, they heated it for about 10h at approximately 1100°C. This solid phase reaction produced Ti3SiC2, and TiSi2 as a mix of Ti3SiC2 and TIC. TiSi2 contaminants are removed by high-pressure gas. TiSi2 can then be oxidized for 10h in air at 45°C. Concentrated sulfuric Acid is used for the removal of the TiO from the reaction. This will give rise to the MAX powder which can be pure up to 95%.
Yang et al. These factors had an impact on how MAX phases were prepared by controlling the powder ratios, temperature and holding time. To obtain MAX phases powders that are more pure than 99wt% the ratio of Si powder, Ti powder and TiC must be at least 1.10. Vacuum insulation of 2 hours at 1250°C1300C. In addition, Yang et al. For high-purity MAX Phase materials of very high purity, C and Si powders were replaced with polycarbosilane.
Preparation for thin film MAX Phase materials
By chemical vapor dipping, the MAX phase material was first made film-like. Nicki I made thin Ti Sic2 Sic2 films with CVD in 1972. No single phase of the film was created. Physical vapour Deposition is the best method of preparing thin film MAX phases. Using magnetron sputtering technology, Palmquist et al. Ti Sic 2, thin films, were produced at 900 C with three-source cosputtering. This involved I target (Si target), Si target (C target) and C target (C target). You can use the cathode-pulse arc or high speed oxidation jet to prepare this material.
Results show that materials can not be prepared when the temperature drops below 473K. A low-temperature, nano-film is still possible, provided the temperatures are not below 473K. Material has excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistance, as well as strong conductivity.
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