What’s Holmium Oxide?
Holmium oxide also known as Holmium trioxide has the chemical form Ho2O3. The compound of rare earth elements holmium or oxygen, Holmium oxide, is known as holmium trioxide. It’s as popular as dysprosium, and one of the most paramagnetic substances. The component of erbiumoxid minerals, holmium dioxide is also made up of holmium. The natural state of holmium dioxide often mixes with the trivalent oxides lanthanides. A specific process is needed to distinguish them. You can make special colored glass with holmium dioxide. Because of its sharp peak appearance, the visible absorption spectrum for glass and solution containing Holmium Oxide has been used traditionally as a reference standard in spectrophotometer calibration.
Crystal Structure of Holmium Oxide
Although Holmium dioxide crystals are part of the cubic crystal structure, their structure is complex. Every unit cell is made up many atoms. The lattice constant at 1.06nm is quite large. This structure is typical for oxides of rare earth metal elements like Tb2O3, Dy2O3,Er2O3, Tam2O3, Tm2O3, Lu2O3, Yb2O3, or Tm2O3. It has 7.4mm/ thermal expansion coefficient.
Historical Information About Holmium Oxide
Marc de la Fontaine & Jacques Luis Sole discovered Holmia in 1878 when they observed an unusual absorption spectrum of an unknown metal. Pell Teodorcliff also discovered this element during the 1878 study of Erbium Oxide.
Cliff was able to remove impurities using the method of Carl Gustav Mossander. Two types of impurities are found among them: the brown and the green. The brown substance was named “Holmia” after Stockholm and the “thulia” green substance “thulia”. He later found out that the materials he separated actually contained holmium oxide as well as thulium dioxide.
Holmium Oxide production process
We will briefly describe the process of extracting holmium oxide: crushing minerals and grinding. Repeated use of the electromagnetic beneficiation technique is required to remove the holmium phosphate from the ore. The pH of the acidic filtrate can be partially neutralized by sodium hydroxide, which will give it a pH range between 3-4. Hydroxide will form from the precipitation of thorium. Ammonium oxalate is then used to transform the rare earth salt insoluble into oxalate. An annealing process converts the oxalate to oxide. After the oxide has been dissolved in the nitric, the cerium oxide becomes insoluble in the nitric, which separates the cerium.
The most efficient way to distinguish holmium dioxide from other rare earth elements is by ion exchanging. You first need to add the rare earthions onto an appropriate ion-exchange resin. Next, you will use a suitable complexing agent like ammonium citrate, or nitrilotriacetic Acid, to wash out any remaining rare earthions.
Holmium Oxide: Application Options
The yellow and red colors of Soviet diamonds, and Soviet glass can be enhanced by holmium dioxide. The spectrum has sharp peak absorption values of glass with holmiumoxide and holmiumoxid solution (usually perchloric acids solution). These glasses can be used for calibration purposes and they have been commercialized. In addition to being a rare earth element, holmium dioxide can also be used as a catalyst, phosphor, and laser material. This laser can produce pulsed and continuous light, with a wavelength of approximately 2.08 mm. This laser is non-harmful to the eye and can be used for medical, optical radar, wind speed measuring, atmospheric monitoring and medicine.
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