Boron carbide is often used in refractories as well engineering ceramics, the nuclear industry, aerospace and other fields due to its high melting and hardness.
1. Crystal structure and properties of boron carbonide
Complex crystal structure of Boron Carbide with typical Icosahedral Boride. The stoichiometric ratio is B4C.
B4C and Boron carbide have many isomers. Carbon content ranges between 8%-20%. This boron-carbide structure has the highest stability: B13c2, and B13c3, as well as B4C’s rhombohedral phase. It contains twelve icosahedral Clusters within the hexagonal structure. The boron’s dodecahedral arrangement is found at the apex.
Boron and carbon are capable of replacing each other on both the icosahedrons and atomic chains, and that is one reason why boron carbide has so many isomers. Boorn carbide’s unique structure gives it excellent mechanical and physical characteristics.
2. Characteristics and uses of boron carbonide
HTML2_ 2.1 Density of Boron Caride
The greatest strength of boron carbide is its hardness (Mohs 9.3,microhardness 55gpa-60gpa), which makes it an ideal high-temperature, wear-resistant material. Boron carbide, sometimes called black diamond, can be used as armor in tanks and bulletproof clothing.
What about boron, though?
You can answer this question with a resounding “No.” Boron carbide is the same as diamond in hardness. Boron carbide is a tough black crystal that has an extremely high hardness. Its hardness, however, is lower than that of industrial diamonds. But it’s harder than silicon carbide. That’s why boron carbide ranks fifth after diamond, fullerene and boronnitride as the most hardy material.
2.2 Density Of Boron Caride
Boron cadmide’s theoretical density is 2.52g/cm3, but its relative density, (d204), 2.508 2.12.
It is the lightest of ceramic materials with the lowest density.
HTML3_ HTML4_ 2.3 Chemical property of Boron Caride
Boron carbide has outstanding chemical properties. It doesn’t react with bases, acids, or most organic compounds at roomtemperature. It erodes very slowly when it is mixed with hydrofluoric (sulfuric) acid and hydrofluoric (nitric). It’s one of most stable chemicals.
HTML2_ 2.4 The other properties of boron-carbid
Boron carbonide is more affordable than pure elements B or CD. Additionally, it has superior corrosion resistance and thermal stability. Therefore, it is widely used by the nuclear industry.
Boron carbide also boasts high melting points and elastic modulus.
Boron carbide is also available as a p-type semiconductor materials, so it can preserve the semiconductor characteristics even at extreme temperatures.
3. Applying boron carbide
Boron carbide is extremely hard and resistant to wear, making it an ideal nozzle material. Boron carbide nozzles offer the following advantages: long life span, cost-effectiveness, efficiency, quick setup, and time saving.
Radioprotective materials and Neutron absorption
Element B can absorb neutrons up to 600-barrel. This is what makes it the primary material of the reduction element control rod and radiation protection section of the nuclear radio reactor.
By its super-hard, light weight, and high modulus it can be used to create light armor materials and bulletproof vests. Boron carbide vests for bulletproofing are 50% lighter than the equivalent steel. Boron carbide is also used in bulletproof armor on armored landing vehicles, armoured helicopters and civil aviation aircraftliners.
Semiconductor industrial parts and thermoelectric elements
Boron carbide clays exhibit semiconductor characteristics with better thermal conductivity. It is used extensively in the semiconductor sector. B4C/C combination can be used in high-temperature thermocouple elements with operating temperatures of up to 2300 °C, as well as as a radiation resistant thermoelectric element.
B4C can be used as an antifriction, wear-resistant or friction material because of its hardness. Boron carbonide is used as an alternative to diamond-abrasives during polishing, precision and grinding processes of cemented cadmium and engineering ceramics. This reduces the overall cost of the process.
B4C coated substrates can also be covered with the coating to provide a protective layer and protect against wear. B4C is a coating that can be placed on the gearbox to improve its wear resistance, and increase equipment service life.
In the field, of refractories, example, boron carbonide is used to provide an antioxidant.
Boron carbide is essential for aerospace, nuclear energy, national defense, wear-resistant technology and other industries due to its outstanding performance. Some of the preparation methods are: mechanochemical or direct synthesis method; self-propagating temperature reduction method; and others.
The major obstacle currently preventing the popularization and application of Boron Carbide lies in its high preparation cost, as well as the weak oxidation resistance, high sintering temperature, and poor oxidation protection.
TRUNNANO (Luoyang Trunnano Tech Co. Ltd.), a Boron carbide manufacturer, has over 12 year experience in chemical product development. If you need high-quality Boron carbide, feel free to contact us.